Погрузочно-разгрузочные работы Today, freight forwarding companies are a fairly popular line of business. These cargo operations are carried out with each product before its further transportation.
Cargo transshipment: what is it?In order to understand how loading operations occur, it is necessary to understand the appropriate terminology.
Transshipment of goods is the direct unloading of cargo from containers to the port terminal and its further loading onto the transport of rail or road communications with subsequent export from the port territory.
Work OptionsDepending on a number of factors, which include the structure and design features of the vessel, the geographical location of warehouses, transshipment facilities and the type of cargo, the most suitable option for performing cargo operations is selected.
Schemes and options for work:
- Direct, according to which, transshipment of goods in the port can be carried out from one type of mobile vehicle to another, for example, from a train to a ship or vice versa.
- Warehouse option involves unloading goods at the port’s warehouses, and then to vehicles or in the opposite sequence.
The ratio of the weight of the goods, which is processed according to the direct option, to the total mass of the cargo is considered to be a transit coefficient, which determines the efficiency of the operations performed in relation to the cargo.
The warehouse option is the most advantageous and quite effective when transporting goods through a buffer warehouse. The essence of this method is that the goods prepared for prr, remain in the warehouse near the pier. Then, before the direct loading of the goods, the goods are sent to the place of operation of the cranes, while an uninterrupted process is performed.
Efficient use of resources and timeIn order to optimize and speed up the processing of ships in the port, as well as to rationally use labor and transport resources, a certain algorithm of actions must be performed.
The first point of this sequence of actions will be the development of technological maps, as part of the executive documentation. To answer the question: what is transshipment of goods? It is only necessary to open the technological map, according to which the path, algorithm and list of operations for the transportation and movement of goods are established.
Transshipment of cargo in seaports and its components:
- preparation for lifting the load;
- movement of goods;
- drawing up a plan and scheme for lifting cargo;
- shtivka of goods, according to its size and dimensions.
A detailed transshipment plan includes the following functions:
- coordination of the process of delivery of goods;
- organization of work on acceptance, its accumulation in specialized warehouses and subsequent storage;
- compliance with the full range of loading operations by any of the methods;
- obligatory quality control of the goods, as well as its quantitative indicators;
- registration of customs documentation, including and declarative in nature;
- provision of documentation for cargo (bill of lading, manifestos, navigational and other receipts);
- registration of various certificates for the goods, depending on its variety.
The financial part of the processesThe cost of prr depends on many factors that affect the overall figure. The financial components depend on the estimated calculation and determination of the average number of planned costs for processing 1 ton of goods, the normative calculation for this weight of the goods and measures to reduce the cost of these works.
The predominant part of the cost of loading and unloading is occupied by the salary costs of employees involved in the process. In turn, factors such as depreciation, fuel costs, electricity, repairs, administrative and managerial goals, and other incidental costs also affect staff pay.
Components of loading and unloading processes:
- acceptance and further processing of ships or barges in the port;
- sorting by type (oversized, loose or piece);
- full support of such a process as loading and unloading at the goods port;
- cargo transshipment services from any type of transport to a ship or vice versa;
- warehousing and storage of goods or goods in warehouses or open areas;
- cargo safety control;
- providing advice to specialists in any matters relating to pr.
Advantages of loading and unloading at the port:
- the presence of its own network of cargo port or port sections;
- modernized modern equipment, regardless of geographical location, performed pr. The port of Odessa and many other ports of the Ukrainian system can be proud of modern gantry cranes, cranes on the pontoon system of a wide range of lifting capacity, progressive construction equipment and convenient mooring walls;
- many open and closed warehouses for any cargo, including and overall.
To understand the necessity of compiling this most important part of the executive documentation, we can consider the entire chronology of such a process as transshipment of cargo “port-warehouse-hold”, but first turn to technical terminology.
The need for a technological map
A routing is an executive document that is provided by the contractor and contains the following data:
- Brief description and description of cargo handling methods;
- data on the number and grouping of dockers and other handling equipment;
- location of cranes and other transport equipment;
- instructions on labor protection at the time of the implementation of the pr, binding;
Due to the impossibility of premature planning and accounting of all conditions and operations, typical technological maps are initially developed, which, in fact, are adjusted and finalized.
The flow chart after development is approved by the head of the port in which the work is performed.
Who is allowed to perform workOnly men over the age of 18 who have successfully passed the medical commission and have the appropriate certificate are allowed to take actions of a loading and unloading nature. Otherwise, a candidate who does not meet these requirements will not be allowed to perform pr. Odessa, for example, as one of the main port cities of Ukraine has quite a lot of specialists of a particular profile on the labor market.
Admission of workers to perform loading operations once (no more than 1 month) is permitted only after successful completion of instruction and training. In addition, each specialized specialist will certainly be provided with special working hope, shoes and protective equipment, in accordance with applicable standards.
If a specialist performs work on a temporary basis, that is, no more than 1 month, he is prohibited from overloading the following types of goods: bulky;
- metal rolling, pipes;
- explosive, and others that may cause harm to the health, life of people or property of the port;
- cylinders with any gases;
The freight forwarding industry in the coastal regions of Ukraine is quite developed and is improving every year, gaining momentum, creating competition not only for the domestic but also for the foreign market. The three favorites include Mariupol, Odessa and Yuzhny.
Permanent leader in the popularity of transportation among port cities, which for many years has been carrying out all freight forwarding, as well as loading and unloading operations, is Odessa, with which none of the port cities of Ukraine can be compared with in its scale of transportation.
Despite its simple operation, transshipment of goods contributes to the overall safety of the cargo, and the speed of loading affects the speed of its transportation. Therefore, the transshipment of goods plays a no less important role than any of the processes performed.
Перед загрузкой контейнеры осматриваются производителем работ для выявления повреждений, влияющих на безопасность производства работ (исправное состояние дверей, пола, строповочных узлов и др.).